Avian Resources



Packwood Lake Hydroelectric Project staff collaborate on the implementation of the Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Measures with representatives of federal, state, and local resource agencies. The Project’s Resource Agencies Committee (RAC) includes but is not limited to the United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Service (USFS), Cowlitz Indian Tribe (CIT), Federal Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC), National Park Service (NPS), United States Department of Commerce – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), United States Department of Defense – Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), United States Department of the Interior - Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Washington State Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (DAHP), Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE), Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Yakama Nation (YN), consulting biologists, and EN subject matter experts.

The Avian Protection Plan describes measures to be undertaken by EN to address potential impacts to avian species associated with the Project’s transmission line. Nearly all native North American avian species are protected from “take” (i.e., to hunt, capture, kill, harass, or possess) under the federal Migratory Bird Act of 1918, as amended (16 U.S.C. 703-712, et. seq.). Other laws and regulations that prohibit unauthorized take of birds include the federal Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543, et. seq.) and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 668-668C, et. seq.). Electric transmission and distributions systems are a potential source of bird electrocution or collision mortality, which may be considered “take.”

The extensive research that has been devoted to the causes and solutions to address bird electrocution and collision mortality associated with electric transmission and distribution systems has been summarized by Avian Power Line Interaction Committee (APLIC) (2006). This research has prompted state and federal resource agencies, in concert with the electric utility industry, to adopt various standards for structural designs and siting of new lines that avoid or minimize bird electrocutions and collisions. The key standard for avoidance of bird electrocutions is a minimum spacing of 60 inches between energized phases (i.e., energized electrical conductors) or between a phase and a grounding source (APLIC 2006). The key requirements for minimizing risk of collision mortality are removal of overhead ground wires and siting new lines to avoid major bird flight paths (APLIC 2006).​

 Supporting Documents